I've been studying up on apples for cider. I'm planning a long row. If anyone has ever researched apples, then you know there are so many different varieties. Deciding on apples for cider mix is a daunting task. Not to mention cider apples mixes are closely guarded secrets.
Through my studies of all the books I can get my hands on and a select few on-line sites, I've seemed to have come upon a good starting point for cider mix.
Blend for unfermented cider
Sweet/Base apple(s) (30 ~ 60%)
Tart apple(s) (10 ~ 20%)
Aromatic apple(s) (10 ~ 20%)
Astringentic apple(s) (5 ~ 10%)
Although it's true a select few apples will make a fairly decent one apple cider. I want to leave myself open to tweaking a mix. It's not like you can just throw in a apple tree. They take years to start producing.
I'll edit this post as I zero in on the cider apples I want to try and graft and grow.
it's quite fun researching apples, I find it really interesting. I'll probably try and put them on M111 semi dwarf rootstock for easy of picking.
Esopus Spitzenburg(annual large)
Fall-Winter. Esopus, NY, before 1776.For more than 200 years Spitz has been a choice dessert and culinary variety, mentioned in nearly every list of best-flavored apples. Slightly subacid, crisp and juicy. Excellent acid source for sweet or fermented cider. Medium-large bright red round-conic...
Early Fall. Parentage unknown. Canada, before 1700. Also called Snow.Excellent fresh eating, great sauce and sharp cider apple. Alas, however, not a pie appleturns to soup. The 1865 Department of Agriculture yearbook sums it up: Flesh remarkably white, tender, juicydeliciously pleasant, with a...
Fall. From outside the walls of Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, before 1800.Large beautiful rich-yellow oblate fruit with a prominent red blush and a big russet splash surrounding the stem. The Apples of New York calls Blenheim excellent for either dessert or culinary use...
Fall. Bittersharp cider apple. Parentage unknown. Somerset, England, early 19th century.High in tannin and acidity. (SG 1.061, acidity 5.8g/L, tannin 1.9g/L) Produces full-bodied vintage cider with a nice blend of acid, tannins and sugar.One of the noteworthy varieties that makes a high-quality...
Standard all-purpose home and commercial variety of mid 1800's
Baldwin bi-annual medium large)
Late Fall. Traditional French mild bittersweet cider apple. Unknown parentage. Probably from Normandy, France.Bore and Fleckinger classify it as sweet. (SG 1.056;1.072) Small angular fruit, somewhat oblate and truncate, with a deep red blush covering about three quarters of the fruit...
Long term, 3 to 5 years before apple production. But I believe I've done my homework and left myself plenty of wiggle room for recipe tweeking. The apples won't grow if I don't graft them. So I'll order the rootstock and scionwood in November for mid March delivery and get grafting. Should be interesting and fun to try.
Picked up good Bartlett pears that got blown off the tree by thunderstorms last night. I left the not good so good ones for bees and wildlife. Pears are nice you can pick them a little early to ripen off the tree. I'll probably pick the rest of them off the tree in a week or so.
since all my M111 air layers survived transplanting into 3 gallon nursery pots. I went ahead and pruned off lower leaves and branches, in anticipation of grafting mid August. I may graft a little earlier since it's been a week of on and off again thunderstorms and rain. Everything is well hydrated currently and I think it would be a good time to do some chip grafting.
After Wednesday they say it's supposed to rain most every day, who knows about forecasts though... It rained last night and is raining now. I may just wait until Saturday or Sunday to try my first ever attempts at chip grafting. I really want to wait until everything is well hydrated.
I'll be using this video a my guide. I think it's a good one. There is one thing I've yet to see or read about that's crossing my mind. It would stand to reason that you want to place the chip so it's oriented in the same position as it is on the bud stick. I guess it's common sense that you don't want to place it upside down. I suspect sap will only flow in one direction. So my suspicion if the chip were placed upside down it wouldn't take.
I'll share my experience with my first ever grafting attempts.
Just sharing what I believe to be some very good info 👍
Original Inquiry: Hello Starkbro, I hope you are having a blessed day.
Could you please advise what has overcome my redhaven peach tree. And recommend treatment. Please see attached photo.
Please see the solution below: Solution:
Dear Valued Customer,
We appreciate you reaching out to us. Red spots on a peach tree are caused by overwatering combined with poor drainage. But red spots can also be caused by chemical toxicity or lack of nitrogen. peach trees are also vulnerable to rust and leaf curl that can cause red spots on the leaves before they start falling from the tree.
Overwatering is the leading cause behind red spots on peach tree leaves. Overwatering can also kill the root system of the peach tree and reduce the lifespan of this fruit tree. Overwatering can be easily be avoided by regulating the irrigation system according to the water requirements of the peach tree. But, don’t forget to monitor the amount of water distributed by the irrigation system as this is important as well. A mature peach tree requires several gallons of water every day in the growing months of July and August. I would highly recommend adjusting the irrigation system to maintain a steady supply of moisture for a healthy peach tree. Proper watering will not only maintain the leaf color but also plays an important role in fruit production because Peach fruit contains 87% water. Potted peach trees need more water than those growing in garden soil, and this means they have high chances of overwatering. Make sure you water the potting soil only when the soil dries. Generally, in summer, a potted peach tree needs to be watered every day. But in winter, this frequency reduces to every five days. The frequency can vary depending on the temperature in your region, rainfall, crop size, and the age of your peach tree. Improper drainage can also lead to overwatering. It could also be due to poorly draining soil or container. Always use well-draining soil to avoid trapping unnecessary water in the soil.
Bacterial Spot- Xanthomonas campestris pv.Pruni is a bacteria that causes red spots on peach tree leaves and even infects the fruit. This disease is also known as the bacterial shot hole, and it’s a common issue for old peach trees. The reddish-purple leaf spots caused by this bacteria have a white center. This bacteria can overwinter, and once the temperature reaches 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius), it starts multiplying. As the infection spreads, the red spots on the leaves will turn into holes which further destroy the appearance of the leaves. The infected leaves can also turn yellow before falling. If left untreated, the infection can spread throughout the tree and cause early defoliation, which impacts the fruit size and leads to winter damage. This bacteria spreads via rain splashing and pests. High humidity and wet conditions also contribute to the rapid multiplication of this bacteria. It’s difficult to treat bacterial leaf spots, but you can use bactericides to suppress the infection on the leaves.
Peach Leaf Curl- This leaf curl can infect everything you see on a peach tree; the leaves, fruit, and flowers. Caused by the Taphrina deformans fungus, the initial stage of infection starts with the leaves thickening before curling. The leaves will also change color — red then yellow. Infected leaves will finally start shedding if the fungus is not treated timely. This leaf curling and spotting can weaken the whole fruit tree and even affect the quality of the fruit. Just like bacterial leaf spots, Peach leaf curl is also difficult to treat. But, you can save your peach tree if you apply fungicides before the buds break. You should also spray the tree with horticulture oil to kill the fungus or any pests hiding.
Peach Rust- This is caused by Tranzschelia discolor, a fungus that spread through air pores. Peach trees growing in wet, warm regions are more vulnerable to rust because the fungus grows in warm conditions. The water sitting on the leaves after rainfall or watering can also contribute to the growth of rust. Leaves of an infected peach tree will develop lesions that are yellow on the upper portion of the leaves and red or brown near the tip of the leaves. Avoid leaving water on the foliage for too long. Improve the airflow around the tree by spacing the trees properly and pruning them regularly. You can also take the help of fungicides to destroy the fungus and infected spores. Make sure you use a sulfur-based fungicide.
Nitrogen deficiency is always associated with pale green leaves, but it can vary from one plant to another. If your peach tree leaves have red spots and the tree starts shedding the leaves, it’s suffering from a lack of nitrogen. Nitrogen deficiency can also be caused by root rot because infected roots cannot absorb the nutrients from the soil even if they are available. But, before you decide to add nutrients to the soil, I highly suggest checking the plant for root rot first. Once you are sure that your peach tree is not suffering from root rot, fertilize your peach tree with a nitrogen-rich fertilizer. Test the soil regularly to make sure your fruit trees are not suffering from any nutrient deficiency, especially in the growing months.
Chemical toxicity caused by copper can also lead to necrotic or red spots on a peach tree. The foliage can also develop holes. Avoid using harmful chemicals for fruit trees. If necessary, apply the chemicals only at the beginning of the season to prevent toxicity.
If you have any further questions please don't hesitate to reach back out to us, remember that we're here for you. Have a great day!